Contraceptive Knowledge Everybody should Know

Hormonal Methods:

Hormonal methods are suitable for most women to use. Clients should consult a health care professional before commencing any of these methods.

Pills

How it works

  • Contain hormones, act by suppressing ovulation
  • There are 2 main types:-
    1. combined type contains both estrogen and progestogen
    2. progestogen only

How you use it

Take the pills at the same time every day

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (91 - 99.7%)*
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

Injectable

How it works

  • Contain hormones, act by suppressing ovulation
  • There are 2 main types:-
    1. Combined type contains both estrogen and progestogen
    2. progestogen only

How you use it

  • For combined injectable, you need to have a shot every 1 month
  • For progestogen only injectable, you need to get a shot every 13 weeks

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (94 - 99.8%)*
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

Patch

How it works

Contains estrogen and progestogen, act by suppressing ovulation

How you use it

  • 4 weeks as 1 cycle
  • Change the patch on the same day of the week for 3 weeks and then stop for 1 week

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (91 - 99.7%)*
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

IUD

Intrauterine device (IUD)

How it works

  • By prevent fertilization and implantation of the fertilized egg in the womb
  • There are 2 main types:-
    1. Copper bearing IUD
    2. IUD that contain hormone

How you use it

  • Put in woman’s uterus by a trained health professional and regular follow-up is required
  • Depend on the model of IUD, it can use for contraception for 5 - 10 years

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Very effective (99.2 - 99.8%)*
  • Common side effects: May have pain during menses and increase menstrual flow after insertion of IUD

Barrier Methods:

Condoms for Men / Women

Use of condoms can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted disease including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

How it works

Prevent sperms from entering the womb

How you use it

  • Man put a new condom on the erected penis every time before he has sex
  • Woman put a new condom in her vagina every time before she has sex

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness
    • For male condoms: Moderately effective to effective (82 - 98%)*
    • For female condoms: Moderately effective to effective (79 - 95%)*
  • Majority of the condoms are made of latex. People with latex allergy can use condoms made of polyurethane
  • Please consult your doctor for emergency contraception as soon as possible if condom slips or broken during sex

Others:

Spermicide

How it works

Inactivate and kill sperms

How you use it

  • Women put the spermicide in her vagina every time before she has sex
  • Avoid vaginal douching 6 hours after having sex

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Less effective to moderately effective (70 - 80%)*
  • There are different forms: tablets, vaginal film, vaginal sponge, etc
  • Some spermicide cannot use together with condom, please consult health care professionals for details

Permanent Methods:

Sterilization for Women

  • Female sterilization is a minor operation by tying or cutting the fallopian tubes
  • It is a permanent form of contraception

Helpful Tips

Contraceptive effectiveness: Very effective: (> 99.5%)*

Sterilization for Men (Vasectomy)

  • Vasectomy is a minor operation by cutting the vas deferens.
  • It is a permanent form of contraception

Helpful Tips

    Contraceptive effectiveness: Very effective: (> 99.8%)*

Emergency Contraception (EC):

  • Include emergency contraceptive pills and copper bearing intrauterine device
  • Can be used in the following situations
    • Having unprotected sexual intercourse
    • Slipped or broken condom during sex
    • Delay in receiving injectable contraception
    • Missed your oral pills
    • Your IUD loosened or slipped out

Emergency Contraceptive pills (EC pills)

How it works

  • By stop or delay the release of egg from ovary
  • Should be taken as soon as possible after the index sexual activity
  • The earlier the intake of EC pills, the higher the efficacy

Helpful Tips

  • Failure rate: affected by the intake time and other factors
  • Cannot be used as a regular contraceptive method

Copper bearing intrauterine device (Use as EC)

How it works

  • Should be inserted within 5 days after the index sexual intercourse in suitable clients after assessment by health care professional
  • In suitable clients, it is more effective when compared with EC pills
  • Can be used as ongoing contraception

Helpful Tips

Failure rate: Less than 1%

Family Planning Service

  • Most MCHCs provide consultation and appropriate contraceptive methods to women of childbearing age to enable them to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of the children
  • MCHCs provide appropriate and effective regular contraceptive methods and emergency contraceptive service according to individual needs. Please contact our staff for more infomation.
  • Please note: MCHCs do not provide contraceptive patches.

*Contraceptive Efficacy: The percentages show how well each methods for most users who use the method for a year. Some methods work well only when the users use them the right way.

Source: Contraceptive technology: 20th edition, by Hactcher RA, Trusell J, Nelson AL. Adrent Media, 2011.

(Content revised 01/2018)