Contraceptive Knowledge Everybody should Know

1. Hormonal Methods

Hormonal methods are suitable for most women to use. Clients should consult a health care professional before commencing any of these methods.

Pills

How it works

  • Contain hormones, act by suppressing ovulation
  • There are 2 main types:-
    1. Combined type contains both estrogen and progestogen
    2. Progestogen only

How you use it

  • Take the pills at the same time every day

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (91 - 99.7%) (Note 1)
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

Injectable

How it works

  • Contain hormones, act by suppressing ovulation
  • There are 2 main types:-
    1. Combined type contains both estrogen and progestogen
    2. Progestogen only

How you use it

  • For combined injectable, you need to have a shot every 1 month
  • For progestogen only injectable, you need to get a shot every 12 weeks

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (94 - 99.8%) (Note 1)
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

Patch

How it works

  • Contains estrogen and progestogen, act by suppressing ovulation

How you use it

  • Four weeks as one cycle
  • Change the patch on the same day of the week for 3 weeks and then stop for one week

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Effective to very effective (91 - 99.7%) (Note 1)
  • Common side effects: May have nausea, breast tenderness and change of your periods, i.e. irregular, increase or decrease in menses

2. Intrauterine device (IUD)

How it works

  • By prevent fertilization and implantation of the fertilized egg in the womb
  • There are 2 main types:
    1. Copper bearing IUD
    2. IUD that contain hormone

How you use it

  • Put in woman’s uterus by a trained health professional and regular follow-up is required
  • Depend on the model of IUD, it can use for contraception for 5 - 10 years

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Very effective (99.2 - 99.8%) (Note 1)
  • Common side effects: May have pain during menses and increase menstrual flow after insertion of IUD

3. Barrier Methods

Condoms for Men / Women

Use of condoms can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted disease including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

How it works

  • Prevent sperms from entering the womb

How you use it

  • Man put a new condom on the erected penis every time before he has sex
  • Woman put a new condom in her vagina every time before she has sex

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness
    • For male condoms: Moderately effective to effective (82 - 98%) (Note 1)
    • For female condoms: Moderately effective to effective (79 - 95%) (Note 1)
  • Majority of the condoms are made of latex. People with latex allergy can use condoms made of polyurethane
  • Please consult your doctor for emergency contraception as soon as possible if condom slips or broken during sex

4. Spermicide

How it works

  • Inactivate and kill sperms

How you use it

  • Women put the spermicide in her vagina every time before she has sex
  • Avoid vaginal douching 6 hours after having sex

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Less effective to moderately effective (70 - 80%) (Note 1)
  • There are different forms : tablets, vaginal film, vaginal sponge, etc
  • Some spermicide cannot use together with condom, please consult health care professionals for details

5. Permanent Methods

Sterilization for Women

  • Female sterilization is a minor operation by tying or cutting the fallopian tubes
  • It is a permanent form of contraception

Helpful Tips

  • Contraceptive effectiveness: Very effective: (> 99.5% ) (Note 1)

Sterilization for Men (Vasectomy)

  • Vasectomy is a minor operation by cutting the vas deferens.
  • It is a permanent form of contraception

Helpful Tips

  • 避孕功效:极佳(>99.8%)*

6. Emergency Contraception (EC)

  • Include emergency contraceptive pills and copper bearing intrauterine device
  • Can be used in the following situations
    • Having unprotected sexual intercourse
    • Slipped or broken condom during sex
    • Delay in receiving injectable contraception
    • Missed your oral pills
    • Your IUD loosened or slipped out

Emergency Contraceptive pills (EC pills)

How it works

  • By stop or delay the release of egg from ovary
  • Should be taken as soon as possible after the index sexual activity
  • The earlier the intake of EC pills, the higher the efficacy

Helpful Tips

  • Failure rate: affected by the intake time and other factors
  • Cannot be used as a regular

Copper bearing intrauterine device (Use as EC)

How it works

  • Should be inserted within 5 days after the index sexual intercourse in suitable clients after assessment by health care professional
  • In suitable clients, it is more effective when compared with EC pills
  • Can be used as ongoing contraception

Helpful Tips

  • Failure rate: less than 1% (Note 1)

Family Planning Service

  • Most MCHCs provide consultation and appropriate contraceptive methods to women of childbearing age to enable them to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of the children
  • MCHCs provide appropriate and effective regular contraceptive methods and emergency contraceptive service

Note 1: Contraceptive Efficacy: The percentages show how well each methods for most users who use the method for a year. Some methods work well only when the users use them the right way.

Source: Contraceptive technology: 20th edition, by Hactcher RA, Trusell J, Nelson AL. Adrent Media, 2011.

(Content revised 08/2012)