Development of pre-primary children

Transcript

Title:Development of pre-primary childrenyears

Heading: Development of Pre-primary Children

Dr. Rachel Cheng, Family Health Service of the Department of Health: A child’s development is ongoing with certain sequences. What this means in general is that when children reach a certain age or developmental stage they will have corresponding advances or changes. A child’s development is affected by innate genetic factors as well as by acquired experiences and their environment.

Narrator: To understand children’s development we have to observe their performance in the following aspects physical, intellectual, language, affective and social skills. Remember, different areas of development are interrelated for instance, it is sometimes difficult to draw a line between language and intellectual functioning. It would be better for teachers to observe and interpret from an overall perspective.

Sub-heading: Physical Development – Gross and Fine Motor Skills

Sub-heading: Basic Movements (2 to 3 years old)

Narrator: The two-year-olds are able to walk quite steadily and even push or sometimes pull large objects as they walk. They also like to run around when they walk up and down the stairs. Their steps are not yet steady. They need to hold onto the handrail or place both feet on a step.

Sub-heading: Basic Movements (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: At the activity room of school, the teacher let the children step on the colorful footprint, they walked on the footprint steadily and happily. Two children at another activity room playing ball with teacher. One of them is running to catch the rolling ball. A child is able to walk up and down stairs one foot per step.

Narrator: At the age of three to four years their movements will become more steady.

Sub-heading: Basic Movements (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: The children at school activity room, they are learning forward stepping, hopping back and forth with both legs, and forward hopping with single leg. The childre is mastering one foot per step without holding handrail.

Narrator: After turning four years old children gradually become more agile when they walk, run and jump.

Sub-heading: Basic Movements (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: In the activity room of school, the children are running smoothly. They can walk up and down stairs without holding handrail steadily.

Narrator: By the age of five they are more coordinated in all movements just like adults. They can walk up and down the stairs by placing one foot per step.

Sub-heading: Physical Activities (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: A girl is playing the slide. She is a bit clumsy when climbing up the ladder and crawling into the toy tunnel. Another boy also crawls out from the toy tunnel in a bit clumsy manner. A girl is trying to kick a ball, but she fails as she has not yet mastered the skills. She needs to try again slowly before mastering the skills. At the activity room, some children are playing ball with the teacher. A girl is clumsy in throwing a ball. A boy failed to pick up the ball. Another child also failed to throw a ball into the bin.

Narrator: At the beginning, the two to three-year-olds coordination isn’t mature they are a bit clumsy when climbing facilities in the playground… kicking a ball… or throwing a ball around… and when they ride a tricycle they do it by pushing their feet on the ground.

Sub-heading: Physical Activities (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: The children are queuing up to play slide, they are more coordinated in climbing up the ladder.

Narrator: Gradually, their movement becomes more coordinated. They can propel a tricycle forward by using the pedals and also properly control its direction. They can kick a rolling ball as well as throw and catch a big ball.

Sub-heading: Physical Activities (4 to 5 years old)

Narrator: By the age of four to five they can walk on a balance beam. They aim more accurately when throwing a bean bag or a small ball.

Sub-heading: Physical Activities (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: Some children are climbing net at activity room. They are learning to master how to climb up and turn their body while climbing down the net.

Narrator: After turning five they become more agile. They can run and kick a ball at the same time and also bounce a ball with their hand.

Sub-heading: Eye-hand Coordination – Art and Craft (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: A child of 2 years old, he is turning a book page by page. Two children are playing dough, they know how to rub, pound, squeeze, press and pull the dough. A child manages to coordinate both hands to spread out a squeezed paper. Two children are putting big beads to a string. A girl stacks up six blocks. Some children is folding paper on the table while another child is trying to use scissor to cut paper into slips.

Narrator: Two-year-old children can do various activities involving hand-eye coordination.

Sub-heading: Eye-hand Coordination – Art and Craft (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: A girl is stacking up the eighth and nineth blocks. A child use scissor to cut paper. Another two children is trying coloring. One is only scrabbling while another one is coloring a shape but fails to follow the border of the shape.

Narrator: After three years old, these skills will be more refined. Yet, they cannot control their hands very well when colouring.

Sub-heading: Eye-hand Coordination – Art and Craft (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: A child is coloring a big circle and a square without out of the borders. Two girls fold square papers into triangle. Another child has cut simple shape out and used glue to stick on another paper.

Narrator: The four- to five-year-olds can apply different fine motor skills and creativity to produce various artwork and crafts.

Sub-heading: Eye-hand Coordination – Art and Craft (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: A child can color a figure skillfully without out of border. Another child folds a square paper to a retangle and then folds again to make a smaller square. Another child carefully cuts a smaller shape according to the lines.

Narrator: When they reach the age of five there is prominent improvement in their finger dexterity.

Sub-heading: Pencil Skills (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: A child is trying to draw a circle, a straight line and horizontal line.

Narrator: Two- to three-year-old children are still at the pre-writing stage but will try to hold a crayon to make some strokes.

Sub-heading: Pencil Skills (3 to 4 year old)

Scene: In the classroom, during group activity time, some children are imitating different straight lines by using pencil on paper. Some children draw cross on paper by using pencil.

Narrator: Then they draw by imitating different types of lines and simple shapes.

Sub-heading: Pencil Skills (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: A child draws a square and another child draws a triangle slowly. However, another girl manages to draw a square in faster speed.

Narrator: When they reach the age of four children can hold a pencil like an adult and draw more complex shapes.

Sub-heading: Pencil Skills (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: In the classroom, some children with age 5 to 6 are sitting around the table writing. They write simple English words such as mother, father, Chinese words such as 乘車 and numbers on paper by using pencil. A child erases a wrongly printed word by using a eraser. A girl uses right hand to hold pencil while uses left hand to hold a ruler to draw a straight line. A child is using pencil sharpener.

Narrator: Gradually, they can copy simple words… and also use other kinds of stationery when writing.

Sub-heading: Cognitive Development

Sub-heading: General Concepts (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: A teacher and five 2 to 3 years old children sitting in circle on the floor playing games. The teacher is holding a tray.

Teacher said: Okay, I’ll ask Siu Han Ching....

Scene: Siu Han Ching stands up immediately and go to the teacher to get the bean bag.

Narrator: Two-year-old children know their own name.

Teacher said: Where is your hand?

Scene: Some children heard the question from teacher, they hold up their hands immediately. Then the teacher ask a child who is figeting with his legs.

Narrator: The names of body parts.

Teacher said: What is this?

Scene: The child puts up his leg immeidiately and gives answer.

The Child said: Leg.

Narrator: and its functions.

Teacher: What do you use your legs for?

The Child: Walking.

Scene: A child puts a red bean bag in the middle of a plastic ring while another child puts a yellow bean bag in the middle of the plastic ring. A boy accurately puts a triangle and square card on top of another paper card which also has a triangle and a square shape drawn, and it then makes a simple house. He also puts a circle shape card on top of a another paper card with circle shape drawn which then makes a car wheel. A child tries to put plastic ring in a rod according to the size.

Narrator: They begin to learn some basic concepts such as colour matching shape matching and arranging objects according to size.

Sub-heading: General Concepts (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: Some children are sitting and waiting for the instruction by the teacher. When they heard teacher said.

Teacher: Let’s ask one more child to come out.

Scene: All the children hold up their hands. One girl is called up by the teacher to answer some questions.

Narrator: At the age of three they can tell you things about themselves.

Teacher: Tell us your name.

The girl: Chiu Chi Ying.

Teacher: And then tell us how old you are

The girl: I am four.

Teacher: So tell us, are you a boy or a girl?

The girl: A girl.

Scene: A child points to the colorful papers on the table and tells the color of the paper.

The girl: This is red, blue and yellow

Narrator: They can tell the names of colours and show concepts of opposites.

Scene: Another girl points to the triangles, one big and one small, sticking on the whiteboard and says

The girl: This is big. This is small.

Scene: A boy puts a cup on a saucer, he also puts comb and mirror together. A child accurately put a bird behind a rabbit according to the instruction of a picture card. Another child draws a hand on a simple human figure by using crayon.

Narrator: They can match objects… put them in sequence… and also draw a simple human figure

Sub-heading: General Concepts (4 to 5 years old)

Narrator: After four years old, children are able to tell inconsistencies in pictures.

Scene: A teacher and a girl in the classroom, the teacher points to the worksheet and ask the girl question

Teacher: Okay look here, where’s the cow? What’s wrong with it?

The girl: It has gone into the doghouse

Teacher: Oh, it’s in the doghouse. What’s wrong with the tortoise?

The girl: It’s trying to climb the tree.

Teacher: Can they climb trees?

Scene: the teacher asks questions again, the girl shakes her head.

Narrator: or categorise different types of things

Scene: The teacher holds the card with words of dog, cow, goat and car written and asks the children questions.

Teacher: Which one is different, not the same?

Children: The Car.

Teacher: Why is the car different?

Children: because it is not an animal. It’s not the same!

Teacher: That’s right, the car is something different as it has wheels.

Scene: A girl uses crayon to draw a human figure with eyes, nose, mouth and hair. She also colors the hair and draws the hands for the figure.

Narrator: They can draw a human figure in more detail.

Sub-heading: General Concepts (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: A girl arranges the toy buses according to their lengths.
Two girls put the circle and square boxes in accord to their heights. A girl puts three cylinders according to their widths.

Narrator: By the age of five, children have no problemin putting things of different lengths…heights… and widths in correct order.

Sub-heading: Arithmetical Concepts (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: The teacher gives colorful blocks to the children and counts together.

Narrator: The two-year-olds do not yet understand the concept of quantity. They can only rote count.

The girl: 1, 2

Teacher: Point and count now.

The girl: 3, 4, 5…

Scene: The teacher holds two blocks up for the 2 children and count together.

Narrator: Gradually, they begin to understand the meaning of the numbers ‘1’ and ‘2’.

Teacher: count 1.

The boy: 1, 2,

Teacher: Right, 2 blocks!

Sub-heading: Arithmetical Concepts (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: A group of children are sitting, clapping hand and counting together.

Narrator: Besides rote counting in sequence…

The children: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Narrator: They are able to grasp the concept of one-to-one counting and can also correctly count the number of objects.

Scene: A boy points and counts the circle shapes on the whiteboard slowly. Another girl also points to and counts the circles on the whiteboard accurately. The girl said : 1, 2, 3, 4 circles.

Sub-heading: Arithmetical Concepts (4 to 5 years old)

Narrator: When children reach the age of about four they begin to grasp the concept of time.

Scene: Two teachers and the children are learning time concept at the classroom. A teacher holds up a clock and ask the children questions.

Teacher: Can you tell me what children do at night?

Children: Sleeping.

Narrator: and begin to understand spatial relationships.

Teacher: Who is standing in front of the person in the blue top?

Scene: Follow the instruction of teacher, the boy chose the correct figure from the table.

Sub-heading: Arithmetical Concepts (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: A group of K3 children are having class, the teacher is holding a calendar and asking questions.

Teacher: Okay, children can you all tell me again what date is today?

Narrator: After the age of five they can correctly use a calendar.

Children: 23rd of April, 2012.

Scene: the teacher continue to ask questions while holding the calendar.

Teacher: Okay. What day is it today?

Children: It’s Monday.

Scene: Teacher holds a clock and asks the chidlren questions.

Teacher: What time is it now?

The girl: Nine o’clock.

Scene: A child counts with his fingers, and calculate simple addition and subtraction on the worksheet.

Narrator: read time from a clock and perform simple addition and subtraction.

Sub-heading: Attention and Memory (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: Four kids are sitting round the table and are assembling the plastic blocks. Another child is assembling the 4-pieces strawberry puzzle.

Narrator: By the age of two, children are able to sit down and play with some ‘quiet’ activities.

Sub-heading: Attention and Memory (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: Two teachers are telling story by holding a story book, a group of 3 to 4 years old kids listen attentively.

Narrator: When they reach age three they can attend to storytelling and play under the teacher’s supervision.

Scene: A girl was beating a hogan with a wooden hammer attentively.

Sub-heading: Attention and Memory (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: Two girls are sitting on the floor reading together , another girl is doing the worksheet attentively.

Narrator: After four years old, children can focus their attention on reading and doing a worksheet.

Sub-heading: Attention and Memory (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: In the classroom, a teacher holds a big story book reading the story with a group of children. A boy standing next to the teacher retelling the story.

Narrator: From five onwards they can tell a story in their own words.

The boy: First, his friends come to see him then, after that, he says“I have a toothache”. Then he says, “I’m very thirsty". Can you give me some water?

Sub-heading: Word Recognition (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: Four children are rocking a wooden horse. Two children are pretending doctor and nurse by examining the puppet with the thermometer and stethoscope. A group of children are sitting in a circle on the floor listening to the teacher.

Narrator: Early childhood education should focus on the all-round development of children. Teaching word recognition and writing too early is not necessary.

Sub-heading: Word Recognition (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: A boy points to and reads the word cards on the plastic box.

Narrator: After the age of three children start to develop an interest in words.

A boy: “Hand” “Up” “Mother” “Down” .

Sub-heading: Word Recognition (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: The teacher holds up word cards for the children to read.

Narrator: Around the age of four children are able to recognise simple words.

Children: “Cow” “Goat”.

Scene: Teacher continue to ask questions.

Teacher: And this?

Children: “Car”.

Scene: The teacher holds a card written " puppy", and asks the children questions.

Teacher: And what is this?

Children: "puppy".

Scene: The teacher asks other related questions.

Narrator: and understand their meaning.

Teacher: How about cow? What’s a cow?

Children: Animal

Scene: The teacher holds word card of "goat".

Teacher: What is this?

Children: A goat is an animal.

Sub-heading: Word Recognition (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: One teacher and some children sitting in the classroom, she holds up several vocabulary cards for the children to read.

Narrator: After five years old they know more vocabulary.

Children: “Children”, “Clothes”, “Classroom”.

Scene: Teacher holds a card written " Food " and invites Calvin to read and explain, she also ask him other related questions.

Teacher: Okay, Calvin.

Calvin: Food that is something for us to eat.

Teacher: What kind of food do you know of?

Calvin: Apple, meat pie, donut, spaghetti.

Sub-heading: Language Development

Sub-heading: Verbal Comprehension (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: A teacher is having class with a group of students, a boy is jumping from his seat. The teacher wants him to be attentive and sit properly.

Narrator: The two-year olds can understand simple instructions without gesture cues.

Scene: The boy immediately sat properly, other children also put their legs properly.

Teacher: Alright! Let us see who is sitting nicely ? Who is sitting with their legs crossed?

Scene: The teacher is holding a puppet and is inviting children to answer her questions.

Teacher: Where is your eye?

Scene: A girl hold up her right hand and point to her eye immediately.

Teacher: What can we do with our eyes?

Narrator: and understand different nouns…

Scene: Another boy answer immdiately.

Boy: Watch TV.

Teacher: How does a bird fly?

Scene: A girl stands up immeidately and pretends flying of a bird.

Narrator: verbs…

Scene: The teacher continue asks questions.

Teacher: Who wants to come out and try running?

Scene: Two boys hold up their hands, the teacher ask on of them to do the quick running.

Teacher: Then, how to walk slowly?

Narrator: and adjectives.

Scene: After understanding the instruction of teacher, another boy demonstrates walking slowly.

Teacher: Slowly…

Sub-heading: Verbal Comprehension (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: Two teachers are holding a big book and are telling story with a group of students in the the classroom.

Narrator: After three they can understand more and more.

Teacehr: Later, the Bear finds the Princess and what the Princess is doing. She's having something to eat...let's see...

Scene: Two boys are holding their balls while listening to the instructions of the teacher.

Narrator: including prepositions.

Teacher: Patrick, please put it into the basket.

Scene: After listening to the teacher's instruction, one of the boy put the ball into the bastet.

Teacher: Lincoln, put it outside the basket.

Scene: After listening to the instruction, another boy put the ball outside the basket.

Sub-heading: Verbal Comprehension (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: Different toy cars are being lined up in front of some boys, the school bus toy car is put at the last of the line. The teacher is asking the children questions on the position of the toy cars.

Teacher: Which car is at the back, being the last?

Narrator: After four years old they can understand more abstract words.

Boy A: School bus.

Teacher: Which one is in the middle?

Boy B: The truck.

Scene: A group of students are listening to class in the classroom. There are two teachers with one holding a paper clock and asking the children questions on simple time concept.

Narrator: such as descriptions of spatial position and time

Teacher: What is Sidney doing in the morning?

Boy C: Wake up.

Scene: The teacher has turned the paper clock to nine. Another girl stands next to the teacher and is answering the questions with the other children.

Teacher: And what do children do at night?

Girl A: Sleeping.

Scene: Another is having class with a group of children, the teacher is asking question on the story about ant and cricket.

Narrator: They can also understand more complicated storylines.

Teacher: The Ant and the Cricket play together all day. Right, what happens when autumn arrives?

Girl B: The ants say, “Winter’s coming!” They store up food and they’re ready for the winter.

Sub-heading: Verbal Comprehension (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: Two children after listening to a teacher talking about a stoy on a lion, the teacher is asking them questions of the begining and the end of the story. One of the girl is answering.

Teacher: At the beginning of the story, what happens?

Girl: The animal friends visit the lion.

Narrator: As a child’s memory develops they can remember the order of events in a story.

Teacher: I see, then what happens at the end?

Girl: The lion says he is very hungry and wants to eat all his animal friends. Then all the animal friends run away.

Scene: The teacher is holding the big story book and continue to ask question about the story of the lion.

Narrator: and also make a logical guess at the ending of a story.

Teacher: Then all the animals run and run and run and finally escape. Alright. And that’s the end of the story.

Scene: One of the boy is asking the teacher question.

Child: Why do they need to run away?

Teacher: Yes, why do they leave?

Scene: A girl and a boy are sitting and the girl is answering the questions of the teacher.

Girl: Because the lion wants to eat them.

Scene: There is a paper box and some cards of Fuwa are being put in different positions of a table. Some children are sitting round the table and the teacher is asking them questions.

Narrator: They become more and more sophisticated in word understanding

Teacher: Who can show me which Fuwa is closest to the box?

Scene: The children are able to find the farthest and nearest Fuwa card accurately.

Children: These two!

Teacher: The farthest from the box who can show me?

Chidlren: These two!

Teacher: That’s right!

Scene: There are two puzzle cards on the table, one with the back on top and the other with front on top. The teacher is asking the children questions.

Teacher: Which card shows the back? Which card shows the front?

Scene: The children follow the instruction and choose the cards accurately.

Scene: Teacher holds the calendar and points to the date of 23rd and ask the children questions.

Teacher: See, today the 23rd and it’s Wednesday, okay. So, then what day was yesterday?

Scene: A group of children enthusiastically hold up their hands to answer question, one of the boy answers correctly.

Boy: Tuesday

Teacehr: So, then when is the 24th?

Girl: Tomorrow

Sub-heading: Verbal Expression (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: On one hand, a girl is following to sing nursery rhymes and on the other hand, she is using her hands to touch her ears and nose.

Narrator: After becoming two, besides learning nursery rhymes children begin to use short sentences to express themselves. However, there are great differences among individual children in their ability to verbally express themselves.

Scene: Two children are talking freely, one of them is using his hands to touch his face and showing some difficulty in expressing while the other boy using his finger pointing to his head saying.

Boy: This is not your head.

Scene: Some children stand around the little plastic pond. They are watching and talking about the fishes inside the pond.

Children: Go fish.

Scene: On boy looks up pointing to the fish and says.

Boy: It's resting ! It’s eating ! No, taking a rest! Eat something, eat the fish!

Narrator: They also begin to ask questions.

Boy: What is it doing?

Sub-heading: Verbal Expression (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: A group of children are reciting nursery rhymes with movement.

Children: Together, we nod our heads, stretch our hands, bend our waists.

Narrator: With their development they are able to use more vocabulary and longer sentences to express themselves.

Scene: One child use longer sentence to answer the teacher's question.

Boy A: Go back to school then hand in homework then after, we play with toys.

Scene: Some children sitting around the table, listening to the teacher and answering the teacher's questions.

Boy B: I see the little bird is flying up.

Teacher: An elephant. What does an elephant look like?

Boy B: Very long.

Teacher: What’s very long?

Boy B: The nose.

Scene: One boy initiates to ask quesion.

Boy B: Teacher, what is an elephant?

Narrator: They like to ask questions. All these are children’s characteristics at this stage of development.

Scene: Some children are sitting around and asking questions.

Boy A: Who are you, please? So what are you doing?

Boy B : Please, where is your head?

Sub-heading: Verbal Expression (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: A girl is aswering the teacher's question.

Girl: Played at the park, played with friends. We were wet, went home and played again.

Narrator: When they reach four years old, they can even use more complex sentences to express themselves or recall details.

Scene: A teacher and some children are sitting around, the teacher is holding a big picture card asking the children questions. One girl is answering the teacher's question.

Girl: They are crickets and ants. Crickets are playing. Ants are moving their food home.

Teacher: Moving their food?

Girl: Yes.

Teacher: And then?

Girl: Then the ant says “Let’s move the food together”but the cricket says…. He says, “Let us play together” and the ants say, “Nooo”

Scene: On the table, there is a tortoise inside the plastic box.
Some chidlren and a teacher are sitting round the table asking questions.

Girl: When will the tortoise’s head come out from this again?

Boy: What do tortoises eat?

Teacher: What did you just ask?

Girl: How do tortoises eat?

Sub-heading: Verbal Expression (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: A teacher turns open the big story book, a girl stands next to the teacher telling story of the book.

Narrator: When children are about five, they can communicate with other people with no difficulty.

Girl: They’re playing in the water. They made the floor all wet and there were many toys. Mammy saw them. She was very angry.

Scene: the teacher is asking the girl question.

Teacher: Really, then what would you say to mother?

Girl: I would say sorry to mum.

Scene: The girl goes back to her seat and continues answering questions.

Girl: When I go out to play and can’t see my mother, then I start crying. Then when someone comes to me. I ask them, “Who are you?”

Narrator: They know how to speak in turn keeping on the topic.

Scene: A boy is answering teacher's questions.

Boy: You can’t eat some types of butter. Only one type can be eaten which is the healthy butter.

Scene: Two boys continue to talk about butter.

Boy A: That’s margarine.

Boy B: But some are also margarines, they are unhealthy. But there is a type of butter which is the most healthiest of them all.

Scene: Some children sitting around and playing games. One boy grabs the other boy's blocks and the boy yells nd tries to get back.

Narrator: When they are upset, they’ll talk back and protest.

Boy: Ah! He’s got mine! Um… that’s not fair.

Sub-heading: Affective and Social Development

Sub-heading: Socialisation and Emotion (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: Two girls are playing blocks together, another girl and a boy are playing toys on their own.

Narrator: Two- to three-year-old children are still self-centered playing on their own, and do not share.

Scene: Another girl and a boy are competing for a puppet. The boy that fails to get the puppet becomes very unhappy and turns sulky. But, when the teacher gets out another toy for him, he turns happy again quickily.

Narrator: They will easily get jealous and angry but will easily get settled when their attention is distracted.

Scene: A teacher instructs the children to queue up to get plastic tray and then go back to their seats to complete the tasks.

Narrator: They are able to wait and take turns under the instruction of an adult.

Sub-heading: Socialisation and Emotion (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: Two boys are playing a toy with wooden beads

Narrator: At the age of three they start to learn self-control.

Scene: Two boys are sitting on the floor, they get mixed up of their shoes. One of the boy gets one shoe and tells the other boy.

Boy: This shoe is yours.

Scene: The other boy gets the other shoe and says.

Boy: This shoe is yours.

Narrator: They understand what belongs to them what belongs to others.

Scene: Some children are lining up and taking turns to play a game.

Narrator: They know how to take turns with other children in play and be polite to others.

Scene: A girl is having meal with other children, a teacher asks the girl question.

Teacher: Tonie, do you want this?

Tonie: Yes. Thank you, Miss Wong

Teacher: Good girl

Sub-heading: Socialisation and Emotion (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: A group of children sitting round the table working on their worksheets in the classrooom. Four girls sit on the floor, two by two reading books together.

Narrator: They engage in activities with self-discipline even without adult supervision.

Scene: Two girls are taking turns to play games.

Sub-heading: Socialisation and Emotion (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: Two children hold hands and go find a playmate to play together.

Narrator: Later, they will choose their playmates and cooperate when playing games.

Boy: Four of us, we need one more.

Scene: Some boys sit around a table and play table games together. They use a finger-guessing game to decide who play first.

Boy: Paper, Scissors, Stone.

Scene: When playing game, a boy stands up and explains to other children how to play.

Narrator: They are also able to agree on and follow the rules of games.

Boy: All three of you tied. Here 1, 2, 3, 4. You reach the blue,
Go to the blue, Choose one card.

Scene: The children use dice to decide who play first.

Boy: So, you’re second

Scene: A boy is playing chess and putting a chess-man for three steps.

Boy: 3…1, 2, 3.

Sub-heading: Self-care (2 to 3 years old)

Scene: Some children are sitting round the table. They are holding the bowls and using spoons to eat. One child is able to use spoon.

Narrator: Children who have just turned two are learning to eat with a spoon.

Scene: Some children is preparing to have nap, one girl takes off her jacket on her own. Another boy takes off the shoes and socks on his own.

Narrator: put on and take off simple clothes,

Scene: A boy holds up hand and tells teacher that he wants to go toilet.

Narrator: and indicate their toilet needs.

Teacher: What is it, Elliot?

Elliot: I want to go to peepee.

Teacher: Okay, come out. I’ll go with you, alright?

Scene: A teacher is helping a child 's dressing and washing hands in the toilet.

Narrator: But sometimes they still need a little bit of help.

Sub-heading: Self-care (3 to 4 years old)

Scene: Two children are using spoons on their own. Another girl is using a handkerchief to clean her mouth. Two boys go to toilet on their own. A girl puts on a jacket on her own and is trying to do buttoning. A girl pours water out from a plastic pot to a plastic cup.

Narrator: After three years old their self-care ability gradually improves.

Sub-heading: Self-care (4 to 5 years old)

Scene: Two boys are taking meals and can use chopsticks. A boy uses tissue to clean his nose. Another boy turns on the tap and wash hands on his own. A teacher is taking a boy brushing teeth in the toilet. Another boy turns on the tap, washes a plastic cup and uses tissue to dry up the cup. A girl put the box of snack into her school bag on her own.

Narrator: At the age of four most children can carry out simple self-care activities.

Sub-heading: Self-care (5 to 6 years old)

Scene: The children can use chopsticks skillfully when taking meal. Two boys brush teeth after taking meal. A girl use comb to comb her hair.

Narrator: At the age of five other than taking care of themselves they can also take care of others.

Scene: A girl is distributing bowls and chopsticks to other three children.

Narrator: The above developmental characteristics describe children in general. The pace of development is different in every child. When referring to the above video clips teachers also need to understand a child’s development through day-to-day observation and your experience.

Scene: A group of children is playing slide. Three children are following the teacher's instruction to match the color of different paper. Another teacher with some children are watching the things inside the plastic box. Four boys are playing chess.