What are the risk factors of cervical cancer?

The risk factors include:

  • History of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: it is mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse. Researches find that it is present in most cases of cervical cancer. However, only minority of women with HPV infection develops cervical cancer as the body immunity may clear this virus.
  • Multiple sexual partners or sexual partner with multiple sexual partners: increased risk of HPV infection
  • Having sexual activity too early
  • Smoking habit: active (up to 3 fold increase in risk of cervical cancer) and passive smoking
  • Weakened immunity